Wound fluid is a complex biological sample containing byproducts associated with the wound repair process. Contemporary techniques, such as immunoblotting and enzyme immunoassays, require extensive sample manipulation and do not permit the simultaneous analysis of multiple classes of biomolecular species. Structural mass spectrometry, implemented as ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), comprises two sequential, gas-phase dispersion techniques well suited for the study of complex biological samples because of its ability to separate and simultaneously analyze multiple classes of biomolecules. As a model of diabetic wound healing, poly(vinyl alcohol) sponges were inserted subcutaneously into nondiabetic (control) and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats to elicit a granulation tissue response and to collect acute wound fluid. Sponges were harvested at days 2 or 5 to capture different stages of the early wound-healing process. Utilizing IM-MS, statistical analysis, and targeted ultraperformance liquid chromatography analysis, biomolecular signatures of diabetic wound healing have been identified. The protein S100-A8 was highly enriched in the wound fluids collected from day 2 diabetic rats. Lysophosphatidylcholine (20:4) and cholic acid also contributed significantly to the differences between diabetic and control groups. This report provides a generalized workflow for wound fluid analysis demonstrated with a diabetic rat model.